A food forest is a gardening technique made up of layers of edible trees, shrubs and groundcovers. It contains perennial, diverse and multilayered landscaping. An established food forest can have up to 9 active layers including roots, herbs, ground cover, understory, shrubs, vines, and canopy. It should provide sustainable features for healthy cities, diverse and healthy foods, and good public space. The food forest should be flexible, have varied spaces, be well-connected (such as bike paths), and be centrally located. There is an emphasis on long-term sustainability through perennials, along with annual plantings such as spaces for community garden plots.